Carbon Dioxide Valorisation and Long-Term Sequestration


An historic agreement was achieved between 55 countries, at the COP21 meeting in Paris in 2015, to limit the global temperature rise associated with climate change to 1.5 °C. The agreement calls for zero net anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions to be reached during the second half of the 21st century. Three approaches can be envisaged for lowering global CO2: a) decreasing emissions, b) carbon capture and storage (CCS), including both biological and geological sequestration, and c) chemical conversion to alternative useful compounds. The first of these approaches is generally the one politically mandated, it is important to note that lowering local emissions does not necessarily equate to lowering global emissions. While long term lowering of global emissions is clearly desirable, CCS offers the best near-term possibility until global infrastructure has evolved, while chemical conversion reduces the use of raw materials and it will provide a route to a wide range of chemicals.

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